Relative locations in the 1800 s
Created by a twenty-year federal charter on February 25, , the Bank of the United States was a private corporation funded by stock sold to the federal government and individuals. The same bank bill also established a mint for issuing uniform currency. The Bank of the United States remained a contentious constitutional and political issue for decades, because opponents feared the centralized power of a national bank and opposed federal corporations.
Hand-colored engraving. Springland, Pennsylvania: William Birch and Son, One of the early critical differences between Federalists and Republicans was a disagreement on the implied powers of the Constitution to allow for creation of a national bank. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson advocated a narrow construction of the Constitution that would have prohibited a national bank. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton supported the bank with a broad interpretation of the Constitutions implied powers under the general welfare clause. President Washington sided with Hamilton.
Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton played major roles in the creation of the United States. He was an aide-de-camp to George Washington during the Revolution, a member of the Continental Congress in , , and and the Constitutional Convention in , and the first secretary of the treasury. In Aaron Burr killed Hamilton in a duel arising from ill-will after Federalist leader Hamilton supported Thomas Jefferson instead of Burr in the disputed election of William G. Engraving after a painting by L.
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New York: D. Appleton, Alexander Hamilton , ca.
New York: The Knapp Co. Alonzo Chappel. New York: Johnson, Fry, As party lines were drawn in the new federal government, President George Washington tried to pacify the parties by addressing the chief protagonists—Alexander Hamilton, his secretary of the treasury, and Thomas Jefferson, his secretary of state. Although both Hamilton and Jefferson promised to work together, the struggle between the Federalist and Republican parties continued unabated.
Although the Jeffersonian-Republican Party drew strength from the Anti-Federalists, no one had more claim to the authorship of the federal Constitution than did Madison, one of the founders of the Jeffersonian-Republican Party.
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A Candid State of Politics. National Gazette Philadelphia , September 22, The resulting treaty, which failed to resolve the issues but prevented a war with Great Britain, was extremely unpopular with the Jeffersonian Republicans. John Jay — , a prominent New York nationalist and former president of the Continental Congress, was among the first to call for a National Convention to replace or revise the Articles of Confederation. Jay was an outspoken advocate for the new Constitution and authored several of the Federalist essays.
He served as first chief justice of the United States, — London: R. Wilkinson and J. Debret, May Engraving after drawing by Pierre E. In this letter, Thomas Jefferson challenged James Madison to enter the pamphlet wars against his political rival Federalist Alexander Hamilton whom he asserted is really a colossus to the anti-republican party.
There is nobody but yourself who can meet him, urged Jefferson. Despite George Washington's warning about the dangers of political factions or parties in his Farewell Address to the nation in , the lack of a consensus candidate to assume the presidency only intensified party struggles.
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson led partisan political factions or parties into the national elections of Washington even sought advice from two opposing partisan leaders, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
Displayed here is a draft of Washington's Farewell Address, which Hamilton helped write. They attacked each other with a cane and fireplace tongs on the floor of the House of Representatives on February 15, Congressional Pugilists. Congress Hall, in Philadelphia , February 15, George Washington — , a Virginia planter and veteran of America's frontier wars, was revolutionary America's only commander of all military forces throughout the eight-year war for independence.
His leadership during the Revolution led to his election as the first president of the United States — George Washington. Charcoal on tinted paper, ca. American women, such as Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren, hoped the American Revolution would lead to more legal and political rights for women.
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During the post- Revolutionary period, periodicals aimed directly at women emerged. In this engraving, a copy of A Vindication of the Rights of Women , the cornerstone feminist document, by Mary Wollstonecraft — is presented to Lady Liberty. James Thackera and John Vallance. Philadelphia: W.
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Gibbons, — Marian S. In a letter to her sister, Elizabeth Smith Shaw Peabody — of Aktinson, New Hampshire, Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, asserted the rights of women to judge the conduct of government, even if a woman does not hold the Reigns of government. Abigail Smith Adams — was an outspoken supporter of women's political, educational, and marital rights and a sage and savvy political advisor to her husband, John Adams, revolutionary leader and second president of the United States.
She was the mother of six children and managed the family farm and investments while serving as her husbands chief supporter and advisor. Engraving, after a painting by Gilbert Stuart. Adams , from a portrait by Gilbert Stuart, ca.
Jefferson I have no doubt will support the president. The rivalry of Adams and Jefferson fully emerged in the bitterly partisan campaign of Abigail Adams — , wife of President John Adams, feared that political infighting was endangering the United States, which was engaged in an undeclared naval war with France. During the administration of President John Adams, the United States was engaged in an ongoing, undeclared naval war with France over neutral shipping rights. The core of this sedimentary region—the heartland of the United States—is the great Central Lowland, which stretches for 1, miles 2, kilometres from New York to central Texas and north another 1, miles to the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
To some, the landscape may seem dull, for heights of more than 2, feet metres are unusual, and truly rough terrain is almost lacking. Landscapes are varied, however, largely as the result of glaciation that directly or indirectly affected most of the subregion. North of the Missouri — Ohio river line, the advance and readvance of continental ice left an intricate mosaic of boulders, sand, gravel, silt, and clay and a complex pattern of lakes and drainage channels, some abandoned, some still in use.
The southern part of the Central Lowland is quite different, covered mostly with loess wind-deposited silt that further subdued the already low relief surface. Elsewhere, especially near major rivers, postglacial streams carved the loess into rounded hills, and visitors have aptly compared their billowing shapes to the waves of the sea. Above all, the loess produces soil of extraordinary fertility. The Central Lowland resembles a vast saucer, rising gradually to higher lands on all sides.
Southward and eastward, the land rises gradually to three major plateaus. Beyond the reach of glaciation to the south, the sedimentary rocks have been raised into two broad upwarps, separated from one another by the great valley of the Mississippi River. The Ozark Plateau lies west of the river and occupies most of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas ; on the east the Interior Low Plateaus dominate central Kentucky and Tennessee. Except for two nearly circular patches of rich limestone country—the Nashville Basin of Tennessee and the Kentucky Bluegrass region —most of both plateau regions consists of sandstone uplands, intricately dissected by streams.
Local relief runs to several hundreds of feet in most places, and visitors to the region must travel winding roads along narrow stream valleys.
The soils there are poor, and mineral resources are scanty. Eastward from the Central Lowland the Appalachian Plateau —a narrow band of dissected uplands that strongly resembles the Ozark Plateau and Interior Low Plateaus in steep slopes, wretched soils, and endemic poverty—forms a transition between the interior plains and the Appalachian Mountains.
Usually, however, the Appalachian Plateau is considered a subregion of the Appalachian Mountains, partly on grounds of location, partly because of geologic structure. Unlike the other plateaus, where rocks are warped upward, the rocks there form an elongated basin, wherein bituminous coal has been preserved from erosion. This Appalachian coal , like the Mesabi iron that it complements in U. Extensive, thick, and close to the surface, it has stoked the furnaces of northeastern steel mills for decades and helps explain the huge concentration of heavy industry along the lower Great Lakes.
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The western flanks of the Interior Lowlands are the Great Plains , a territory of awesome bulk that spans the full distance between Canada and Mexico in a swath nearly miles km wide. The Great Plains were built by successive layers of poorly cemented sand, silt, and gravel—debris laid down by parallel east-flowing streams from the Rocky Mountains.